One of the first things creditors ask after filing a proof of claim is, “when do I get paid?” As with so many other legal questions, the answer is, “it depends.” Although many different factors govern payment in a bankruptcy proceeding, there are four key elements to payment: proof, allowance priority, and timing.

Below, we discuss these elements and how they may vary depending on the type of claim and the chapter of the bankruptcy proceeding. Please also refer to this chart for more information regarding when claims are paid … Continue Reading

Mississippi Joins the Anti-Preemption ParadeThe Mississippi Supreme Court recently rejected federal preemption arguments relating to federally owned student loans. This follows other preemption rulings, as we’ve discussed here and here.

Mississippi’s attorney general filed the action on behalf of the state against Navient Corporation, bringing claims under the Mississippi Consumer Protections Act and for unjust enrichment for Navient’s alleged practices of steering borrowers into costly forbearance rather than income-driven repayment, failing to properly recertify income-driven repayment criteria, making misrepresentations regarding cosigner releases, and making errors in process payments. Navient filed a motion to … Continue Reading

Florida Homestead Exemption Applies Only to U.S. Citizens and Permanent ResidentsA bankruptcy judge in the Middle District of Florida recently sustained a Chapter 7 trustee’s objection to a non-Florida resident debtor’s attempted claim of the Florida homestead exemption. Although the debtor had lived in her Florida home for more than 20 years, she was not a United States citizen or a permanent resident with a so-called “green card.” Additionally, none of the debtor’s family members also living in the home were citizens or permanent residents.

When she filed for bankruptcy, the debtor claimed an exemption in her home pursuant to … Continue Reading

Landlords Again Successfully Challenge the CDC’s Authority to Ban Residential EvictionsEarlier this year, the Eastern District of Texas invalidated — commerce clause grounds — the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) ability to halt residential evictions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Subsequently, in Tiger Lily, LLC v. U.S. Dept. of Housing & Urban Development, the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals granted another win to landlords in Tennessee, who argued the agency’s order exceeded its authority.

On March 29th, the court denied the government’s emergency motion to stay a lower court’s order barring enforcement of the CDC’s Halt Order, … Continue Reading

Roughly three months ago, President Biden signed an executive order that, among other things, directed HUD to reevaluate earlier agency decisions perceived to weaken the Fair Housing Act. In response to this directive, HUD has submitted draft rules to the Office of Management and Budget that would roll back two significant changes made by the Trump-era HUD. First, HUD has submitted a proposed rule aimed at reinstating its previous standard for disparate impact discrimination claims. Second, HUD has submitted an interim final rule related to the Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing … Continue Reading

Last March, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act) made several changes to the Bankruptcy Code, including those changes discussed in more detail here. As it became clear that we would be dealing with COVID-19 for much longer than previously anticipated, Congress passed the Consolidated Appropriations Act (CAA), which made additional changes to the Bankruptcy Code, including those explored in more detail in this article.

Originally, several of the Bankruptcy Code amendments included in the prior legislation were scheduled … Continue Reading

Recent Updates Concerning the Home Mortgage Disclosure ActThe Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) has been busy over the last few months laying out what appears to be a broad regulatory agenda. As discussed in this blog, the Bureau has issued an industry notice emphasizing industry preparedness related to COVID-19 forbearance plans, issued proposed COVID-19-related amendments to the Mortgage Servicing Rules, suggested that it will soon issue an NPRM related to Dodd-Frank 1071, and has proposed a delay to the implementation of its Debt Collection Rules, among other things. As light begins to emerge at the … Continue Reading

Bankruptcy is primarily about “claims.” The debtor seeks to discharge personal liability on claims, while creditors seek payment on their claims. In basic terms, a bankruptcy “claim” is a right to payment. The claim does not need to be fixed, settled, undisputed, or due at the time the debtor files his bankruptcy petition. The official proof of claim form is discussed in more detail here.

A claim can be secured or unsecured, and this designation results in vastly different rights and treatment during the bankruptcy process. Creditors — anyone … Continue Reading

CFPB Proposes Delay to Implementation of Its Debt Collection RulesYesterday, the CFPB issued a proposed rule that would extend implementation of both parts of its debt collection rule by 60 days — from November 30, 2021, to January 29, 2022. The debt collection rule, which we have discussed here in detail, addresses numerous topics related to debt collection, including debt collection call volume, restrictions on certain communication mediums under certain circumstances, a prohibition on bringing or threatening to bring legal action to collect time-barred debt, restrictions on certain forms of consumer credit reporting, and rules for electronic communications. … Continue Reading

FEMA Releases Flood Insurance Rating Methodology Under Risk Rating 2.0On April 1, 2021, FEMA released its highly anticipated flood insurance rating methodology, Risk Rating 2.0-Equity in Action.

FEMA first announced “Risk Rating 2.0-Equity in Action” in March 2019 as an effort to improve flood maps and offer rates that are fair, easy to understand, and more aligned with a property’s unique flood risks. The new rating system was initially set to be implemented on October 1, 2020. FEMA extended the date by a year to broaden its analysis of the proposed rating system.

The NFIP currently uses a rating … Continue Reading